Electric Reefs Enhance Coral Climate Change Adaptation, a chapter by Tom Goreau in the book:

Corals – Habitat Formers From the Shallow to the Deep

(Giovanni Chimienti, Editor), explains how the Biorock process greatly increases resilience of corals and marine organisms against extreme stresses and allows large-scale ecosystem services and biodiversity to be maintained despite lethal stress from global warming and pollution. The full chapter can be downloaded here:


This review chapter focuses on Biorock ecosystem function and climate change adaptation. It is the companion paper to another review chapter on Biorock benefits for marine organisms:

Coral Reef Electrotherapy: Field Observations

Biorock reef structure & function